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Gemstone Information

Physical Properties of Stones, Mining Sites, their Hardness, and Folklore


This section will contain information I find from various internet and literary sources regarding many of the gemstones I use in creating my jewelry.  You'll find gobs of information that is fun to know or just plain interesting.  Because my information is coming from others, it is only as good as the sources I get them from, so my apologies if I have misquoted or placed information here that may not be accurate.


I am assembling all the information now, and will post to my website as soon as I can.  Check back often.  Thanks! 



Agates are a banded Chalcedony and part of the Quartz family.  There are a huge variety of Agates in many colors;  their uses date back to the Neolithic Period.


Agates are mined throughout the world, specifically in US, Asia, India, Nepal, Mexico, Brazil, Italy and Africa.

Metaphysically, they are

a stone of balance and offer the wearer abundance, love and protection.


Hardness of stone: 

7 on Mohs scale


The Amethyst belongs to the Quartz family of minerals.  It gets it violet-purple color from iron and aluminum impurities.Without these impurities the Amethyst would be colorless Quartz. 


Amethysts are mined in Brazil (Brazil having the most important deposits), India, Bolivia, Canada, Madagascar, Mexico, Zambia, Burma, Namibia, Russia, Uruguay, Sri Lanka and US (Arizona).

The color purple is considered a royal color and the Amethyst signifies power.  It was often worn in Ancient Greek times to

protect against drunkenness;  it's a symbol of sobriety.


Hardness of stone: 

7 on Mohs scale



Ametrine is a natural, bicolored stone made up of Amethyst and Golden Citrine Quartz


For many years the world's only source of Ametrine was from Bolivia. Now, small amounts are also being found in the Brazilian state of Bahia.

 Ametrine has been used to combat depression and lead to higher forms of spirituality. 


Because it contains the powers of both the Amethyst and the Citrine, Ametrine is thought to be a very powerful money stone.


Hardness of stone: 

7 on Mohs scale



The Aquamarine was named from the Latin phrase, "water of the sea".  The stone belongs to the Beryl family and ranges in color from light blue to blue and blue-green.  It gets its color from minute traces of iron.  Generally speaking, the deeper the blue the better the stone.


Gem quality Aquamarine is produced in Brazil.  The stones also come from Pakistan, Afghanistan, Burma, Russia, China, Namibia, Mozambique, Zambia, Kenya and the US (Colorado, CA).

Aquamarine usage has dated back to 500 A.D. but it's exact origin is unknown. It is a wonderful stone for meditation.  It filters information reaching the brain and clarifies perception.


Hardness of stone: 

7.5 - 8 on Mohs scale



Black Onyx

Black Onyx is a variety of Chalcedony, which belongs to the Quartz family of minerals.  The most common color is black, with some white banding.  Lots of the Onyx on the market has been dyed to ensure a rich color black. 


Black Onyx has long been used in carvings for jewelry and for bowl construction.

Metaphysically, the Black Onyx helps to release negative emotions and defends the wearer against negative energy directed toward him or her.  It helps to fortify self-confidence.


Hardness of stone: 

6 - 7 on Mohs scale


Black Obsidian



Black Sardonyx

Sardonyx is part of the Chalcedony family of stones.  It often has layers of black, white, red, orange and brown bands of Quartz. 


Historically, in Ancient Egypt, it was known as the "every man's stone" and was accessible to all.  Royalty had Lapis, Rubies and Garnets, while the commoners had Sardonyx.  It is one of the twelve stones used in the wall of New Jerusalem and one of the twelve sacred gems used in Aaron's breastplate.

Metaphysically, Sardonyx promotes marriage and harmony.  It promotes integrity;  wonderful stone for boosting self-esteem.  It is also a stone that offers protection. 


Black Sardonyx absorbs negativity and Green Sardonyx purifies.


Hardness of stone: 

6.5 - 7 on Mohs scale


A druzy is a coating of very fine crystals that have found their way in nature into cracks and fractures on a host stone, typically Quartz and Agates.  The crystals sparkle like tiny diamonds when they catch the light, and druzies are often used in making jewelry because of their sparkling nature.  Some druzies are infused with titanium, like the druzy on the left, giving the stone an iridescent rainbow effect.